Chapter 1

:
Basic Network and Routing
Concepts

CCNP ROUTE: Implementing IP Routing

ROUTE v7 Chapter 1

© 2007 – 2016, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

1

Chapter 1 Objectives
 Differentiating Between Dynamic Routing Protocols
 How Different Traffic Types, Network Types, and Overlaying
Network Technologies Influence Routing
 Differentiating Between the Various Branch Connectivity
Options and Describing Their Impact on Routing Protocols
 How to Configure Routing Information Protocol Next
Generation (RIPng)

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© 2007 – 2016, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Differentiating
Between
Dynamic Routing
Protocols

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© 2007 – 2016, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Differentiating Between Dynamic Routing Protocols  Enterprise Network Infrastructure  Dynamic Routing Protocols in the Enterprise Network Infrastructure  Choosing a of Dynamic Routing Protocols  IGP and EGP Routing Protocols  Types of Routing Protocols  Importance of convergence  Route summarization  Describe what influences routing protocol scalability Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 4 .

building. and it enables individual users to establish VPN connections. Enterprise Edge  An enterprise edge provides users at geographically disperse remote sites with access to the same network services as users at the main site.  The network edge aggregates private WAN links that are rented from service providers. spanning a single floor. All rights reserved.  The campus is commonly designed using a hierarchical model — comprising the core. distribution. and access layers—creating a scalable infrastructure. Cisco Public 5 .Enterprise network infrastructure Enterprise Campus  An enterprise campus provides access to the network communications services and resources to end users and devices. Cisco Systems.  It is spread over a single geographic location. or several buildings in the same locality. Inc.  In addition. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. the network edge also provides Internet connectivity for campus and branch users.

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) or Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is typically used.  In this scenario. whereas within the organization.Dynamic Routing Protocols in the Enterprise Network Infrastructure  It is a best practice that you use one IP routing protocol throughout the enterprise.  In a single-homed infrastructures static routes are commonly used between the customer and the ISP. Cisco Public 6 .  One common example of when multiple routing protocols are used is when the organization is multihomed. if possible. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. the most commonly used protocol to exchange routes with the service provider is Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.Choosing a of Dynamic Routing Protocols Input requirements :  Size of network  Multivendor support  Knowledge level of specific protocol Protocol characteristics :  Type of routing algorithm  Speed of convergence  Scalability Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 7 . Inc.

IS-IS is also commonly found as ISP IGP Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGP)  Used to exchange routes between different autonomous systems. and large organizations. Cisco Public 8 . but their scalability has its limits. Cisco Systems. The main function of BGP is to exchange a huge number of routes between different autonomous systems. Fast convergence. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. OSPF and RIP is rarely used. All rights reserved. medium-sized. BGP is the only EGP that is used today. Inc.IGP and EGP Routing Protocols An autonomous system (AS) represents a collection of network devices under a common administrator. The most commonly used IGPs in enterprises are EIGRP. Routing protocols can be divided based on whether they exchange routes within an AS or between different autonomous systems: Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP)  Support small. and basic functionality is not complex to configure.

Similar to distance vector protocols. The only information that a router knows about a remote network is the distance or metric to reach this network and which path or interface to use to get there. path vector protocols do not have an abstract of the network topology. Distance vector routing protocols do not have an actual map of the network topology. All rights reserved. Inc. A link-state routing protocol is like having a complete map of the network topology. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems. Path vector protocols  Path information is used to determine the best paths and to prevent routing loops. Cisco Public 9 . Link-state protocols  The link-state approach uses the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm to create an abstract of the exact topology of the entire network or at least within its area.Types of Routing Protocols Distance vector protocols  The distance vector routing approach determines the direction (vector) and distance (such as link cost or number of hops) to any link in the network. but also include additional information about the specific path of the destination. The map is used to determine best path to a destination. Path vector protocols indicate direction and distance.

Importance of Convergence  The process of when routers notice change in the network.  To minimize downtime and quickly respond to network changes. a fast convergence time is desired. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 10 . exchange the information about the change. and perform necessary calculations to reevaluate the best routes. Cisco Systems. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

All rights reserved.Route Summarization  Route summarization reduces routing overhead and improve stability and scalability of routing by reducing the amount of routing information that is maintained and exchanged between routers. Cisco Systems. Less frequent and smaller updates. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. as a result of route summarization. Cisco Public 11 . Inc. also lower convergence time.

Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 12 .Routing Protocol Scalability Scalability factors include:  Number of routes  Number of adjacent neighbors  Number of routers in the network  Network design  Frequency of changes  Available resources (CPU and memory)  The scalability of the routing protocol and its configuration options to support a larger network can play an important role when evaluating routing protocols against each other. All rights reserved. Inc.

All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems.Understanding Network Technologies Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 13 .

Understanding Network Technologies      Differentiate traffic types Differentiate IPv6 address types Describe ICMPv6 neighbor discovery Network Types NBMA Networks Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 14 .

All rights reserved.Differentiate traffic types Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 15 .

0–239.255.  IPv6 reserved multicast addresses have the prefix FF00::/8. Traffic that is sent to a multicast address is sent to multiple destinations at the same time. Unicast traffic is exchanged only between one sender and one receiver. Cisco Public 16 .255. The nearest interface is found according to the measure of distance of the particular routing protocol.  IPv6 reserved multicast addresses 224.0. but uses multicast addresses instead Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.255. Cisco Systems.Differentiate traffic types Unicast  Unicast addresses are used in a one-to-one context.255. Local broadcast address 255. Broadcast  IPv4 broadcast addresses are used when sending traffic to all devices in the subnet. All rights reserved. it is routed to the nearest interface that has this address. When a packet is sent to an anycast address. Multicast  Multicast addresses identify a group of interfaces across different devices.255. Inc.255. Anycast  An anycast address is assigned to an interface on more than one node.  IPv6 does not use a broadcast address.0.

Well-known IPv4 and Assigned IPv6 Multicast Addresses Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 17 .

Differentiate IPv6 address types Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Inc. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 18 . All rights reserved.

and the default gateway address. Cisco Public 19 . Redirect  This has similar functionality as in IPv4. Router Advertisement (RA)  Sent by an IPv6 router to the all IPv6 devices multicast.Describe ICMPv6 neighbor discovery Router Solicitation (RS)  Sent by a device to the all IPv6 routers multicast to request a Router Advertisement message from the router. Inc. Neighbor Solicitation (NS)  Sent by a device to the solicited node multicast address when it knows the IPv6 address of a device but not its Ethernet MAC address. prefix-length. Cisco Systems. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Neighbor Advertisement (NA)  Sent by a device usually in response to a Neighbor Solicitation message. All rights reserved. Includes link information such as prefix. This is similar to ARP for IPv4.  The RA also indicates to the host whether it needs to use a stateless or stateful DHCPv6 server. Sent by a router to inform the source of a packet of a better next-hop router on the link that is closer to the destination.

Network Types Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 20 . Inc.

 The sender needs to create an individual copy of the same packet for each recipient if it wishes to inform all connected packet can be transmitted. Nonbroadcast Multiaccess (NBMA) network  A network that can support many routers but does not have broadcast capability. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.  Frame Relay and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) are examples of an NBMA network type. Cisco Public 21 . Broadcast network  A network that can connect many routers along with the capability to address a single message to all of the attached routers. Cisco Systems.  A serial link is an example of a point-to-point connection. All rights reserved.  Ethernet is an example of a broadcast network.Network Types Point-to-point network  A network that connects a single pair of routers. Inc.

All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 22 . Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems.NBMA Networks Issues Split horizon  Prevents a routing update that is received on an interface from being forwarded out of the same interface.

the router must replicate broadcast packets. Cisco Public 23 . Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.NBMA Networks Issues Neighbor discovery  OSPF over NBMA neighbors are not automatically discovered.  OSPF treats an NBMA network like Ethernet by default Broadcast replication  With routers that support multipoint connections over a single interface that terminates at multiple PVCs.  These replicated broadcast packets consume bandwidth and cause significant latency variations in user traffic. but an additional configuration is required to manually configure the hub as a Designated Router (DR).  You can statically configure neighbors. Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

NBMA Networks Issues Point-to-point subinterfaces  Each subinterface. All rights reserved. Inc. uses its own subnet for addressing.  Both EIGRP and OSPF need additional configuration to support this underlying technology. Point-to-multipoint subinterfaces  One subnet is shared between all virtual circuits. Cisco Public 24 . Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems. which provides connectivity between two routers.

Connecting Remote Locations with Headquarters Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 25 .

Connecting Remote Locations with
Headquarters

 Identify options for connecting branch offices and remote
locations
 Describe the use of static and default static routes
 Describe basic PPP configuration on point-to-point serial links
 Describe basic Frame Relay on point-to-point serial links
 Explain VRF Lite
 Describe the interaction of routing protocols over MPLS VPNs
 Explain the use of GRE for branch connectivity
 Describe Dynamic Multipoint virtual private networks
 Describe multipoint GRE tunnels
 Describe the Next Hop Resolution Protocol
 Identify the role of IPsec in DMVPN solutions
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© 2007 – 2016, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Principles of Static Routing
A static route can be used in the following circumstances
 When it is undesirable to have dynamic routing updates
forwarded across slow bandwidth links, such as a dialup link.
 When the administrator needs total control over the routes used
by the router.
 When a backup to a dynamically recognized route is necessary.
 When it is necessary to reach a network accessible by only one
path (a stub network).
 When a router connects to its ISP and needs to have only a
default route.
 When a router is underpowered and does not have the CPU or
memory resources necessary to handle a dynamic routing
protocol.
Chapter 1
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27

Configuring an IPv4 Static Route
ip route prefix mask { address | interface [ address ]} [ dhcp ] [ distance ] [
name next-hop-name ] [ permanent | track number ] [ tag tag ]

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All rights reserved.Configuring a Static Default Route Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 29 . Inc. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 30 . Inc. • • • • Authentication Multi-link Compression Quality Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.Basic PPP Overview  Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) has several advantages over its predecessor High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC). All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 31 . Inc.PPP Authentication Overview Router(config-if)# ppp authentication { chap | chap pap | pap chap | pap } [ if-needed ][ list-name | default ] [ callin ] Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Cisco Systems.PPP Configuration Example Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 32 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Inc. Cisco Public 33 . Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.PPPoE Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.  Dynamic maps created via Frame Relay Inverse Address Resolution Protocol (INARP) for IPv4 or Frame Relay Inverse Neighbor Discovery (IND) for IPv6  Split horizon is disabled by default on Frame Relay physical interfaces. a Frame Relay network is an NBMA network.Basic Frame Relay Overview  Frame Relay provides several benefits over traditional point-to-point leased lines • No need for separate physical interface per connection on the router • Bandwidth cost is much more flexible  Frame Relay is a switched WAN technology where virtual circuits (VCs) are created by a service provider (SP) through the network. Cisco Public 34 . All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems. • To emulate the LAN broadcast capability that is required by IP routing protocols Cisco IOS implements pseudo-broadcasting • Dynamic maps always allow pseudo-broadcasting. • The VCs are typically PVCs that are identified by a data-link connection identifier (DLCI)  By default.

Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 35 . Cisco Systems.Frame Relay Topologies Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc.Basic Frame Relay Configuration Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 36 .

Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 37 . All rights reserved.VPN Connectivity Overview  MPLS-based VPNs  Tunneling VPNs • GRE • Ipsec • DMVPN Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

All rights reserved.L3 MPLS VPNs  Traffic forwarding through the MPLS backbone is based on labels that are previously distributed among the core routers. these customer routes are redistributed back from MP-BGP into a remote PE-CE routing protocol. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 38 . Cisco Systems.  Then customer routes that are received on the PE router are redistributed into MP-BGP and conveyed over the MPLS backbone to the remote PE router. the service provider participates in customer routing.  Routing protocols between PE-CE routers on the local and remote sites may be totally different.  With a Layer 3 MPLS VPN.  On the remote PE.  The service provider establishes routing peering between the PE and CE routers. Inc.

• Virtual Private Wire Service (VPWS) is a point-to-point technology that allows the transport of any Layer 2 protocol at the PE. Inc.  There are two basic Layer 2 MPLS VPN service architectures. over a preestablished pseudowire. • The second type of Layer 2 MPLS VPN is Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS).  Layer 2 traffic is sent between PE routers. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.L2 MPLS VPNs  A Layer 2 MPLS VPN CE router interconnects with the PE router at Layer 2 using any Layer 2 protocol with Ethernet being the most common. which emulates an Ethernet multiaccess LAN segment over the MPLS core and provides multipoint. Cisco Systems.  Pseudowire emulates a wire between PE routers that carries Layer 2 frames across the IP-MPLS backbone.to-multipoint service. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 39 .

Cisco Systems. DMVPN  This solution offers the capability to dynamically establish hub-to-spoke and spoke-to-spoke IPsec tunnels.  DMVPN supports dynamic routing protocols between hub and spokes as well as IP multicast. thus reducing latency and optimizing network performance.Tunneling VPNs GRE  Tunneling protocol developed by Cisco that enables encapsulation of arbitrary Layer 3 protocols inside a point-to-point. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. IPsec  Is a framework that uses a set of cryptographic protocols to secure traffic at Layer 3. Cisco Public 40 . tunnel-over-IP network.  Traffic that is transported over the GRE tunnel is not encrypted  GRE traffic is usually encapsulated within IPsec. Inc. It is also suitable for environments with dynamic IP addresses on physical interfaces such as DSL or cable connections. All rights reserved.

Inc. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 41 . neighbor adjacency is established between your R1 and R2 routers. where R1 and R2 are connected together directly using the same IP subnet.  If you deploy a routing protocol over the Layer 2 MPLS VPN. which can be illustrated as one big switch. Cisco Systems. The figure presents the connectivity through the backbone.Routing Across MPLS VPNs  The Layer 2 MPLS VPN backbone solution is providing the Layer 2 service across the backbone.

Routing Across MPLS VPNs  The Layer 3 MPLS VPN backbone solution is providing the Layer 3 service across the backbone. where R1 and R2 are connected to ISP edge routers. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.  Neighbor adjacency is established between your R1 and the closest PE router and between your R2 and it’s closest PE router.  A separate IP subnet is used on each side. All rights reserved. Inc. service providers need to participate in it. If you deploy a routing protocol over this VPN. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 42 .

Routing Over GRE Tunnel  A passenger protocol or encapsulated protocol. such as IP. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. that is defined by Cisco as a multiprotocol carrier protocol. All rights reserved. such as IPv4 or IPv6 that is being encapsulated. Inc. that carries the encapsulated protocol. GRE in this example.  A transport protocol.  A carrier protocol. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 43 .

Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 44 .Dynamic Multipoint Virtual Private Network Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

DMVPN The primary benefits of DMVPNs follow:  Hub router configuration reduction • Traditionally. Inc.  Support for dynamically addressed spoke routers • When using point-to-point GRE and IPsec hub-and-spoke VPN networks. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. • DMVPN enables spoke routers to have dynamic physical interface IP addresses and uses NHRP to register the dynamic physical interface IP addresses of the spoke routers with the hub router. All rights reserved. The DMPVN feature enables the configuration of a single mGRE tunnel interface and a single IPsec profile on the hub router to manage all spoke routers  Automatic IPsec initiation • GRE uses NHRP to configure and resolve the peer destination address. Cisco Public 45 . Cisco Systems. the individual configuration of a GRE tunnel and IPsec would need to be defined for each individual spoke router. it is important to know the physical interface IP address of the spoke routers when configuring the hub router. This feature allows IPsec to be immediately triggered to create point-topoint GRE tunnels without any IPsec peering configuration.

Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. devices using mGRE require NHRP to build dynamic GRE tunnels.  mGRE interfaces also support unicast.Multipoint GRE The main characteristics of the mGRE configuration are as follows:  Only one tunnel interface needs to be configured on a router to support multiple remote GRE peers  To learn the IP addresses of other peer. and broadcast traffic. Cisco Public 46 . Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. multicast.

Cisco Systems. Inc.NHRP Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 47 . All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 48 . All rights reserved.NHRP Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems. Inc.

it cannot be read.  Authentication • Authentication ensures that the connection is made with the desired communication partner.  Antireplay protection • Antireplay protection verifies that each packet is unique and not duplicated. IPsec uses Internet Key Exchange (IKE) to authenticate users and devices that can carry out communication independently. All rights reserved.IPsec IPsec provides four important security services:  Confidentiality (encryption) • No one can eavesdrop on the communication. If the communication is intercepted.  Data integrity • The receiver can verify that the data was transmitted through the path without being changed or altered in any way. Cisco Systems. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 49 . Inc.

Cisco Public 50 . Cisco Systems.Routing and TCP/IP Operations Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. All rights reserved. Inc.

and PMTUD IPv4 Fragmentation and PMTUD Bandwidth Delay Product TCP Starvation Latency ICMP Redirect Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 51 . Cisco Systems. Fragmentation. All rights reserved. Inc.Routing and TCP/IP Operations       MSS.

Cisco Public 52 . Fragmentation. and PMTUD  An IPv4 packet has a maximum size of 65.MSS.294.967. it must fragment the packet unless the DF (Don’t Fragment) bit is set in the IPv4 header. Cisco Systems.295 bytes  However. All rights reserved.535 bytes  An IPv6 packet with a hop-by-hop extension header and the jumbo payload option can support up to 4. most transmission links enforce a smaller maximum packet length called the maximum transmission unit (MTU). Inc.  When a router receives an IPv4 packet larger than the MTU of the egress or outgoing interface. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

Cisco Systems.MSS. Cisco Public 53 . Fragmentation. and PMTUD Fragmentation causes several issues including the following:  CPU and memory overhead in fragmentation of the packet  CPU and memory overhead in destination devices during reassembly of packets  Retransmission of the entire packet when one fragment is dropped  Firewalls that do Layer 4 through Layer 7 filtering may have trouble processing IPv4 fragments correctly Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Systems. Inc.  To avoid fragmentation of an IPv4 packet.IPv4 Fragmentation and PMTUD  TCP Maximum Segment Size (MSS) defines the largest amount of data that the receiving device is able to accept in a single TCP segment.  Path MTU Discovery (PMTUD) was developed for the purpose of determining the lowest MTU along a path from the packet’s source to destination.  PMTUD is only supported by TCP. the selection of the TCP MSS is the minimum buffer size and MTU of the outgoing interface minus 40 bytes.  The TCP MSS helps avoid fragmentation at the two ends of the TCP connection but it does not prevent fragmentation due to a smaller MTU on a link along the path. All rights reserved. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. The 40 bytes take into account the 20byte IPv4 header and the 20-byte TCP header. Cisco Public 54 .

it will send an ICMPv6 redirect message to PCA informing the source of the better route.ICMP Redirect  ICMPV4 Redirect messages are used by routers to notify the sender of a packet that there is a better route available for a particular destination. Cisco Systems. R1 will forward the IPv6 packet to PCB. Inc. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.  Similar to IPv4. All rights reserved. but unlike ICMP for IPv4. PCA can now send subsequent IPv6 packets directly to PCB even though it is on a different IPv6 network. Cisco Public 58 .

Cisco Public 59 .Implementing RIPng     Describe general RIP characteristics Describe how to configure and verify basic RIPng Describe how to configure RIPng to share default routes Analyze the RIPng database Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.RIP Overview  RIP is an IGP that is used in smaller networks. RIPv1 and RIPv2 route in IPv4 networks.  It is a distance vector routing protocol that uses hop count as a routing metric. Cisco Public 60 . All rights reserved.  RIP is a standardized IGP routing protocol that works in a mixed-vendor router environment. and RIPng. Cisco Systems. RIPv2. Inc.  There are three versions of RIP: RIPv1.  RIPng routes in IPv6 networks.

the path with fewer hops will be chosen as the path to forward traffic. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 61 .RIP Overview  RIP uses hop count. All rights reserved. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. the number of routers.  If a network is 16 or more hops away. as the metric. the router considers it unreachable. Inc.  If a device has two paths to the destination network.

All rights reserved. load balancing is disabled.  RIP is also capable of load balancing traffic over equal-cost paths.  If the maximum number of paths is set to one. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Split horizon prevents routing information from being sent out the same interface from which it was received. Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 62 . which is considered unreachable by RIP.  The default is four equal-cost paths.RIP Overview  As a routing loop-prevention technique. RIP implements split horizon.  Split horizon with poison reverse is a similar technique but sends the update with a metric of 16.

Cisco Public 63 . Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.Comparing Features in RIPv2 and RIPng Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

Inc. Cisco Systems.RIPv2 Configuration Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 64 . All rights reserved.

0 Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Router(config-router)# no auto-summary  The ip summary-address rip ip-address network-mask interface command is used to summarize an address or subnet under a specific interface.2.0 255. Cisco Public 65 .0. Inc. RIPv2 automatically summarizes networks at major network boundaries.0. Router(config-if)# ip summary-address rip 10. the software sends subnet routing information across classful network boundaries. Cisco Systems.RIPv2 Configuration  By default. All rights reserved.255. summarizing routes to the classful network address  When route summarization is disabled.

Inc. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 66 . All rights reserved.Configuring RIPng R2(config)# ipv6 router rip CCNP_RIP Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

Verify RIPng Configuration Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 67 .

All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 68 . Cisco Systems.RIPng Summarization Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

Inc. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 69 .Propagating a Default Route R1(config-if)# ipv6 rip name default-information originate | only Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. All rights reserved.

Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 70 .RIPng Verification Commands Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. All rights reserved.

Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 71 . All rights reserved. Inc.RIPng Verification Commands Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

counting itself as a hop. If a network becomes unavailable.  The route prefix. the dead timer.  Installed and expired. is listed. Cisco Public 72 . All rights reserved. in which the keyword “installed” means the route is in the routing table. Inc. This means the destination network is 2 hops away. Cisco Systems. during which the route will be advertised as expired.  The route metric. in which RIPng uses hop count as a metric. In the example. the route will become “expired” after the dead timer expires.  Expires in. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. in which if the countdown timer reaches 0. This timer. the route is removed from the routing table and marked expired. An expired route value (in seconds). is by default three times the hello timer—180 seconds.Investigating the RIPng Database  The RIP process (there can be multiple RIPng processes on a single router). all three routes have a metric of 2.

How to configure RIPng. Using DMVPN to provide fully meshed VPN connectivity with a simple hub-andspoke configuration. The importance of convergence time and how route summarization reduced convergence time and improves scalability. and NBMA networks. How a customer establishes connectivity with a service provider using a routing protocol and a layer 3 MPLS VPN. and broadcast. How VPNs are used to provide security of a public Internet. The three types of routing protocols: distance vector. How to propagate a default route in RIPng. All rights reserved. broadcast. How static GRE tunnels can establish virtual point-to-point links and support dynamic routing protocols. The four traffic types: unicast. The differences between point-to-point. multicast. GRE+IPsec. How DMVPN relies on NHRP. How point-to-point subinterfaces are used to overcome the limitations of NBMA networks. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 73 . The differences and similarities between RIPv2 and RIPng. mGRE. link-state and path vector. and IPsec. and DMVPN.Chapter 1 Summary                 The role of static routes and dynamic routing protocols in enterprise networks. anycast. Inc. Common types of VPNs: MPLS-based VPNs. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. The differences between IGP and EGP routing protocols.

All rights reserved. Cisco Public 74 .Chapter 1 Labs  CCNPv7_ROUTE_Lab1-1_RIPng Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Inc. Cisco Systems.

Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 75 . Inc. Cisco Systems.

Acknowledgment • Some of images and texts are from Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) Foundation Learning Guide by Diane Teare. Bob Vachon and Rick Graziani (1587204568) • Copyright © 2015 – 2016 Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc. Cisco Public 76 . • Special Thanks to Bruno Silva Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.

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