Chapter 1

:
Basic Network and Routing
Concepts

CCNP ROUTE: Implementing IP Routing

ROUTE v7 Chapter 1

© 2007 – 2016, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

1

Chapter 1 Objectives
 Differentiating Between Dynamic Routing Protocols
 How Different Traffic Types, Network Types, and Overlaying
Network Technologies Influence Routing
 Differentiating Between the Various Branch Connectivity
Options and Describing Their Impact on Routing Protocols
 How to Configure Routing Information Protocol Next
Generation (RIPng)

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© 2007 – 2016, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Differentiating
Between
Dynamic Routing
Protocols

Chapter 1
© 2007 – 2016, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Inc. Cisco Public 4 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.Differentiating Between Dynamic Routing Protocols  Enterprise Network Infrastructure  Dynamic Routing Protocols in the Enterprise Network Infrastructure  Choosing a of Dynamic Routing Protocols  IGP and EGP Routing Protocols  Types of Routing Protocols  Importance of convergence  Route summarization  Describe what influences routing protocol scalability Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. or several buildings in the same locality. Inc.  In addition.  The network edge aggregates private WAN links that are rented from service providers. distribution. Cisco Systems.  The campus is commonly designed using a hierarchical model — comprising the core. building. and it enables individual users to establish VPN connections.  It is spread over a single geographic location. the network edge also provides Internet connectivity for campus and branch users. All rights reserved. spanning a single floor. Enterprise Edge  An enterprise edge provides users at geographically disperse remote sites with access to the same network services as users at the main site. Cisco Public 5 .Enterprise network infrastructure Enterprise Campus  An enterprise campus provides access to the network communications services and resources to end users and devices. and access layers—creating a scalable infrastructure.

 One common example of when multiple routing protocols are used is when the organization is multihomed. the most commonly used protocol to exchange routes with the service provider is Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). Inc. whereas within the organization. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) or Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is typically used.Dynamic Routing Protocols in the Enterprise Network Infrastructure  It is a best practice that you use one IP routing protocol throughout the enterprise. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. if possible. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 6 .  In this scenario.  In a single-homed infrastructures static routes are commonly used between the customer and the ISP. All rights reserved.

Inc.Choosing a of Dynamic Routing Protocols Input requirements :  Size of network  Multivendor support  Knowledge level of specific protocol Protocol characteristics :  Type of routing algorithm  Speed of convergence  Scalability Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 7 . All rights reserved.

Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.IGP and EGP Routing Protocols An autonomous system (AS) represents a collection of network devices under a common administrator. and basic functionality is not complex to configure. IS-IS is also commonly found as ISP IGP Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGP)  Used to exchange routes between different autonomous systems. medium-sized. All rights reserved. but their scalability has its limits. Fast convergence. The main function of BGP is to exchange a huge number of routes between different autonomous systems. Cisco Public 8 . OSPF and RIP is rarely used. BGP is the only EGP that is used today. and large organizations. Cisco Systems. Routing protocols can be divided based on whether they exchange routes within an AS or between different autonomous systems: Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP)  Support small. The most commonly used IGPs in enterprises are EIGRP. Inc.

A link-state routing protocol is like having a complete map of the network topology. Similar to distance vector protocols. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. path vector protocols do not have an abstract of the network topology. The only information that a router knows about a remote network is the distance or metric to reach this network and which path or interface to use to get there. Link-state protocols  The link-state approach uses the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm to create an abstract of the exact topology of the entire network or at least within its area. The map is used to determine best path to a destination. Path vector protocols indicate direction and distance. but also include additional information about the specific path of the destination. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 9 .Types of Routing Protocols Distance vector protocols  The distance vector routing approach determines the direction (vector) and distance (such as link cost or number of hops) to any link in the network. Distance vector routing protocols do not have an actual map of the network topology. Inc. Cisco Systems. Path vector protocols  Path information is used to determine the best paths and to prevent routing loops.

All rights reserved.Importance of Convergence  The process of when routers notice change in the network. Cisco Systems. Inc. exchange the information about the change. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. a fast convergence time is desired. Cisco Public 10 . and perform necessary calculations to reevaluate the best routes.  To minimize downtime and quickly respond to network changes.

Cisco Systems. as a result of route summarization.Route Summarization  Route summarization reduces routing overhead and improve stability and scalability of routing by reducing the amount of routing information that is maintained and exchanged between routers. Less frequent and smaller updates. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 11 . Inc. All rights reserved. also lower convergence time.

Cisco Systems.Routing Protocol Scalability Scalability factors include:  Number of routes  Number of adjacent neighbors  Number of routers in the network  Network design  Frequency of changes  Available resources (CPU and memory)  The scalability of the routing protocol and its configuration options to support a larger network can play an important role when evaluating routing protocols against each other. Cisco Public 12 . All rights reserved. Inc. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

Inc. Cisco Systems.Understanding Network Technologies Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 13 .

Cisco Public 14 . Inc.Understanding Network Technologies      Differentiate traffic types Differentiate IPv6 address types Describe ICMPv6 neighbor discovery Network Types NBMA Networks Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 15 .Differentiate traffic types Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

 IPv6 reserved multicast addresses 224. Inc.0.255. it is routed to the nearest interface that has this address. Multicast  Multicast addresses identify a group of interfaces across different devices.255.255. Broadcast  IPv4 broadcast addresses are used when sending traffic to all devices in the subnet. Unicast traffic is exchanged only between one sender and one receiver. When a packet is sent to an anycast address. The nearest interface is found according to the measure of distance of the particular routing protocol. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 16 .255.Differentiate traffic types Unicast  Unicast addresses are used in a one-to-one context. but uses multicast addresses instead Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.0.  IPv6 reserved multicast addresses have the prefix FF00::/8. All rights reserved. Anycast  An anycast address is assigned to an interface on more than one node.255.255. Local broadcast address 255.0–239.  IPv6 does not use a broadcast address. Traffic that is sent to a multicast address is sent to multiple destinations at the same time.

Cisco Systems.Well-known IPv4 and Assigned IPv6 Multicast Addresses Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 17 .

Differentiate IPv6 address types Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 18 . Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 19 . Router Advertisement (RA)  Sent by an IPv6 router to the all IPv6 devices multicast. Redirect  This has similar functionality as in IPv4. Neighbor Solicitation (NS)  Sent by a device to the solicited node multicast address when it knows the IPv6 address of a device but not its Ethernet MAC address. Neighbor Advertisement (NA)  Sent by a device usually in response to a Neighbor Solicitation message. All rights reserved. prefix-length. Includes link information such as prefix.  The RA also indicates to the host whether it needs to use a stateless or stateful DHCPv6 server.Describe ICMPv6 neighbor discovery Router Solicitation (RS)  Sent by a device to the all IPv6 routers multicast to request a Router Advertisement message from the router. and the default gateway address. Inc. Cisco Systems. Sent by a router to inform the source of a packet of a better next-hop router on the link that is closer to the destination. This is similar to ARP for IPv4. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

Inc. Cisco Systems.Network Types Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 20 . All rights reserved.

 The sender needs to create an individual copy of the same packet for each recipient if it wishes to inform all connected packet can be transmitted.  Frame Relay and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) are examples of an NBMA network type. Cisco Systems.  A serial link is an example of a point-to-point connection. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. All rights reserved.  Ethernet is an example of a broadcast network. Cisco Public 21 . Broadcast network  A network that can connect many routers along with the capability to address a single message to all of the attached routers. Nonbroadcast Multiaccess (NBMA) network  A network that can support many routers but does not have broadcast capability. Inc.Network Types Point-to-point network  A network that connects a single pair of routers.

NBMA Networks Issues Split horizon  Prevents a routing update that is received on an interface from being forwarded out of the same interface. All rights reserved. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 22 . Inc. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 23 .  You can statically configure neighbors. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. but an additional configuration is required to manually configure the hub as a Designated Router (DR).NBMA Networks Issues Neighbor discovery  OSPF over NBMA neighbors are not automatically discovered. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. the router must replicate broadcast packets.  These replicated broadcast packets consume bandwidth and cause significant latency variations in user traffic.  OSPF treats an NBMA network like Ethernet by default Broadcast replication  With routers that support multipoint connections over a single interface that terminates at multiple PVCs. Inc.

Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.NBMA Networks Issues Point-to-point subinterfaces  Each subinterface. Inc. Cisco Systems.  Both EIGRP and OSPF need additional configuration to support this underlying technology. which provides connectivity between two routers. Point-to-multipoint subinterfaces  One subnet is shared between all virtual circuits. Cisco Public 24 . uses its own subnet for addressing. All rights reserved.

Connecting Remote Locations with Headquarters Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 25 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc.

Connecting Remote Locations with
Headquarters

 Identify options for connecting branch offices and remote
locations
 Describe the use of static and default static routes
 Describe basic PPP configuration on point-to-point serial links
 Describe basic Frame Relay on point-to-point serial links
 Explain VRF Lite
 Describe the interaction of routing protocols over MPLS VPNs
 Explain the use of GRE for branch connectivity
 Describe Dynamic Multipoint virtual private networks
 Describe multipoint GRE tunnels
 Describe the Next Hop Resolution Protocol
 Identify the role of IPsec in DMVPN solutions
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© 2007 – 2016, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Principles of Static Routing
A static route can be used in the following circumstances
 When it is undesirable to have dynamic routing updates
forwarded across slow bandwidth links, such as a dialup link.
 When the administrator needs total control over the routes used
by the router.
 When a backup to a dynamically recognized route is necessary.
 When it is necessary to reach a network accessible by only one
path (a stub network).
 When a router connects to its ISP and needs to have only a
default route.
 When a router is underpowered and does not have the CPU or
memory resources necessary to handle a dynamic routing
protocol.
Chapter 1
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Configuring an IPv4 Static Route
ip route prefix mask { address | interface [ address ]} [ dhcp ] [ distance ] [
name next-hop-name ] [ permanent | track number ] [ tag tag ]

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Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 29 .Configuring a Static Default Route Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. All rights reserved. Inc.

Cisco Public 30 . Inc.Basic PPP Overview  Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) has several advantages over its predecessor High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC). All rights reserved. • • • • Authentication Multi-link Compression Quality Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 31 . Inc.PPP Authentication Overview Router(config-if)# ppp authentication { chap | chap pap | pap chap | pap } [ if-needed ][ list-name | default ] [ callin ] Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

PPP Configuration Example Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 32 . Cisco Systems.

Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.PPPoE Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 33 .

Cisco Systems. • To emulate the LAN broadcast capability that is required by IP routing protocols Cisco IOS implements pseudo-broadcasting • Dynamic maps always allow pseudo-broadcasting. All rights reserved. • The VCs are typically PVCs that are identified by a data-link connection identifier (DLCI)  By default.Basic Frame Relay Overview  Frame Relay provides several benefits over traditional point-to-point leased lines • No need for separate physical interface per connection on the router • Bandwidth cost is much more flexible  Frame Relay is a switched WAN technology where virtual circuits (VCs) are created by a service provider (SP) through the network. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 34 .  Dynamic maps created via Frame Relay Inverse Address Resolution Protocol (INARP) for IPv4 or Frame Relay Inverse Neighbor Discovery (IND) for IPv6  Split horizon is disabled by default on Frame Relay physical interfaces. a Frame Relay network is an NBMA network. Inc.

All rights reserved. Inc.Frame Relay Topologies Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 35 .

All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 36 . Inc.Basic Frame Relay Configuration Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 37 . Inc.VPN Connectivity Overview  MPLS-based VPNs  Tunneling VPNs • GRE • Ipsec • DMVPN Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. these customer routes are redistributed back from MP-BGP into a remote PE-CE routing protocol. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.  The service provider establishes routing peering between the PE and CE routers.  Then customer routes that are received on the PE router are redistributed into MP-BGP and conveyed over the MPLS backbone to the remote PE router. the service provider participates in customer routing.L3 MPLS VPNs  Traffic forwarding through the MPLS backbone is based on labels that are previously distributed among the core routers.  On the remote PE.  With a Layer 3 MPLS VPN. Inc.  Routing protocols between PE-CE routers on the local and remote sites may be totally different. Cisco Public 38 .

Inc. over a preestablished pseudowire. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. which emulates an Ethernet multiaccess LAN segment over the MPLS core and provides multipoint.  Pseudowire emulates a wire between PE routers that carries Layer 2 frames across the IP-MPLS backbone. • Virtual Private Wire Service (VPWS) is a point-to-point technology that allows the transport of any Layer 2 protocol at the PE. Cisco Systems.  There are two basic Layer 2 MPLS VPN service architectures.  Layer 2 traffic is sent between PE routers.to-multipoint service. • The second type of Layer 2 MPLS VPN is Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS). Cisco Public 39 .L2 MPLS VPNs  A Layer 2 MPLS VPN CE router interconnects with the PE router at Layer 2 using any Layer 2 protocol with Ethernet being the most common. All rights reserved.

Tunneling VPNs GRE  Tunneling protocol developed by Cisco that enables encapsulation of arbitrary Layer 3 protocols inside a point-to-point. tunnel-over-IP network. All rights reserved.  Traffic that is transported over the GRE tunnel is not encrypted  GRE traffic is usually encapsulated within IPsec. It is also suitable for environments with dynamic IP addresses on physical interfaces such as DSL or cable connections. Cisco Public 40 . IPsec  Is a framework that uses a set of cryptographic protocols to secure traffic at Layer 3.  DMVPN supports dynamic routing protocols between hub and spokes as well as IP multicast. Inc. DMVPN  This solution offers the capability to dynamically establish hub-to-spoke and spoke-to-spoke IPsec tunnels. thus reducing latency and optimizing network performance. Cisco Systems. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

All rights reserved. The figure presents the connectivity through the backbone. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems.Routing Across MPLS VPNs  The Layer 2 MPLS VPN backbone solution is providing the Layer 2 service across the backbone. Inc.  If you deploy a routing protocol over the Layer 2 MPLS VPN. Cisco Public 41 . where R1 and R2 are connected together directly using the same IP subnet. neighbor adjacency is established between your R1 and R2 routers. which can be illustrated as one big switch.

If you deploy a routing protocol over this VPN. service providers need to participate in it. Cisco Public 42 .  Neighbor adjacency is established between your R1 and the closest PE router and between your R2 and it’s closest PE router.  A separate IP subnet is used on each side. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Inc.Routing Across MPLS VPNs  The Layer 3 MPLS VPN backbone solution is providing the Layer 3 service across the backbone. where R1 and R2 are connected to ISP edge routers. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.

 A carrier protocol. All rights reserved. that is defined by Cisco as a multiprotocol carrier protocol. GRE in this example.  A transport protocol. Inc. that carries the encapsulated protocol. Cisco Public 43 . such as IPv4 or IPv6 that is being encapsulated. such as IP.Routing Over GRE Tunnel  A passenger protocol or encapsulated protocol. Cisco Systems. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

Dynamic Multipoint Virtual Private Network Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 44 .

The DMPVN feature enables the configuration of a single mGRE tunnel interface and a single IPsec profile on the hub router to manage all spoke routers  Automatic IPsec initiation • GRE uses NHRP to configure and resolve the peer destination address. Cisco Systems. Inc. This feature allows IPsec to be immediately triggered to create point-topoint GRE tunnels without any IPsec peering configuration. All rights reserved. the individual configuration of a GRE tunnel and IPsec would need to be defined for each individual spoke router. • DMVPN enables spoke routers to have dynamic physical interface IP addresses and uses NHRP to register the dynamic physical interface IP addresses of the spoke routers with the hub router. it is important to know the physical interface IP address of the spoke routers when configuring the hub router. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.DMVPN The primary benefits of DMVPNs follow:  Hub router configuration reduction • Traditionally. Cisco Public 45 .  Support for dynamically addressed spoke routers • When using point-to-point GRE and IPsec hub-and-spoke VPN networks.

and broadcast traffic. multicast. Cisco Systems. devices using mGRE require NHRP to build dynamic GRE tunnels. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.Multipoint GRE The main characteristics of the mGRE configuration are as follows:  Only one tunnel interface needs to be configured on a router to support multiple remote GRE peers  To learn the IP addresses of other peer. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 46 .  mGRE interfaces also support unicast. Inc.

Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 47 .NHRP Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.NHRP Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Inc. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 48 .

 Data integrity • The receiver can verify that the data was transmitted through the path without being changed or altered in any way. All rights reserved.  Antireplay protection • Antireplay protection verifies that each packet is unique and not duplicated. Inc. If the communication is intercepted. Cisco Public 49 . IPsec uses Internet Key Exchange (IKE) to authenticate users and devices that can carry out communication independently. it cannot be read.  Authentication • Authentication ensures that the connection is made with the desired communication partner. Cisco Systems.IPsec IPsec provides four important security services:  Confidentiality (encryption) • No one can eavesdrop on the communication. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

Inc. Cisco Public 50 . Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.Routing and TCP/IP Operations Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

Routing and TCP/IP Operations       MSS. Cisco Systems. and PMTUD IPv4 Fragmentation and PMTUD Bandwidth Delay Product TCP Starvation Latency ICMP Redirect Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 51 . All rights reserved. Fragmentation. Inc.

MSS. Fragmentation.295 bytes  However.535 bytes  An IPv6 packet with a hop-by-hop extension header and the jumbo payload option can support up to 4. Cisco Public 52 . Inc. and PMTUD  An IPv4 packet has a maximum size of 65.967. Cisco Systems. it must fragment the packet unless the DF (Don’t Fragment) bit is set in the IPv4 header. most transmission links enforce a smaller maximum packet length called the maximum transmission unit (MTU). Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.  When a router receives an IPv4 packet larger than the MTU of the egress or outgoing interface. All rights reserved.294.

Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.MSS. Fragmentation. Inc. and PMTUD Fragmentation causes several issues including the following:  CPU and memory overhead in fragmentation of the packet  CPU and memory overhead in destination devices during reassembly of packets  Retransmission of the entire packet when one fragment is dropped  Firewalls that do Layer 4 through Layer 7 filtering may have trouble processing IPv4 fragments correctly Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Public 53 .

The 40 bytes take into account the 20byte IPv4 header and the 20-byte TCP header. the selection of the TCP MSS is the minimum buffer size and MTU of the outgoing interface minus 40 bytes.  Path MTU Discovery (PMTUD) was developed for the purpose of determining the lowest MTU along a path from the packet’s source to destination. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.  To avoid fragmentation of an IPv4 packet.IPv4 Fragmentation and PMTUD  TCP Maximum Segment Size (MSS) defines the largest amount of data that the receiving device is able to accept in a single TCP segment.  PMTUD is only supported by TCP. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 54 . Inc. All rights reserved.  The TCP MSS helps avoid fragmentation at the two ends of the TCP connection but it does not prevent fragmentation due to a smaller MTU on a link along the path.

PCA can now send subsequent IPv6 packets directly to PCB even though it is on a different IPv6 network.  Similar to IPv4. Cisco Public 58 . R1 will forward the IPv6 packet to PCB. but unlike ICMP for IPv4. Inc.ICMP Redirect  ICMPV4 Redirect messages are used by routers to notify the sender of a packet that there is a better route available for a particular destination. it will send an ICMPv6 redirect message to PCA informing the source of the better route. All rights reserved. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 59 . All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems.Implementing RIPng     Describe general RIP characteristics Describe how to configure and verify basic RIPng Describe how to configure RIPng to share default routes Analyze the RIPng database Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

 RIP is a standardized IGP routing protocol that works in a mixed-vendor router environment. All rights reserved.RIP Overview  RIP is an IGP that is used in smaller networks. and RIPng. RIPv1 and RIPv2 route in IPv4 networks. Inc. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. RIPv2.  It is a distance vector routing protocol that uses hop count as a routing metric.  RIPng routes in IPv6 networks.  There are three versions of RIP: RIPv1. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 60 .

All rights reserved. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. as the metric. the path with fewer hops will be chosen as the path to forward traffic.RIP Overview  RIP uses hop count. Inc. Cisco Systems.  If a device has two paths to the destination network. the router considers it unreachable. Cisco Public 61 .  If a network is 16 or more hops away. the number of routers.

Inc.  Split horizon with poison reverse is a similar technique but sends the update with a metric of 16. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. RIP implements split horizon. load balancing is disabled. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.  RIP is also capable of load balancing traffic over equal-cost paths. Cisco Public 62 .RIP Overview  As a routing loop-prevention technique. Split horizon prevents routing information from being sent out the same interface from which it was received.  The default is four equal-cost paths. which is considered unreachable by RIP.  If the maximum number of paths is set to one.

All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 63 .Comparing Features in RIPv2 and RIPng Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Systems.RIPv2 Configuration Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 64 .

Router(config-if)# ip summary-address rip 10.0 Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. summarizing routes to the classful network address  When route summarization is disabled. Cisco Public 65 . Router(config-router)# no auto-summary  The ip summary-address rip ip-address network-mask interface command is used to summarize an address or subnet under a specific interface.255.0.2. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. the software sends subnet routing information across classful network boundaries. Inc.RIPv2 Configuration  By default.0 255. RIPv2 automatically summarizes networks at major network boundaries.0.

Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 66 . All rights reserved.Configuring RIPng R2(config)# ipv6 router rip CCNP_RIP Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Inc.

Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 67 . Inc.Verify RIPng Configuration Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 68 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc.RIPng Summarization Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

Inc.Propagating a Default Route R1(config-if)# ipv6 rip name default-information originate | only Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 69 .

Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 70 .RIPng Verification Commands Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 71 . Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.RIPng Verification Commands Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016.

all three routes have a metric of 2.  Expires in. the dead timer. Cisco Public 72 . is listed. Inc. Cisco Systems. in which RIPng uses hop count as a metric. All rights reserved.  The route prefix. during which the route will be advertised as expired. in which if the countdown timer reaches 0.Investigating the RIPng Database  The RIP process (there can be multiple RIPng processes on a single router). is by default three times the hello timer—180 seconds. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. This timer. counting itself as a hop. If a network becomes unavailable. This means the destination network is 2 hops away. the route will become “expired” after the dead timer expires. the route is removed from the routing table and marked expired.  Installed and expired. In the example.  The route metric. An expired route value (in seconds). in which the keyword “installed” means the route is in the routing table.

and broadcast. and NBMA networks.Chapter 1 Summary                 The role of static routes and dynamic routing protocols in enterprise networks. Using DMVPN to provide fully meshed VPN connectivity with a simple hub-andspoke configuration. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 73 . The differences and similarities between RIPv2 and RIPng. and IPsec. How a customer establishes connectivity with a service provider using a routing protocol and a layer 3 MPLS VPN. GRE+IPsec. mGRE. How point-to-point subinterfaces are used to overcome the limitations of NBMA networks. How static GRE tunnels can establish virtual point-to-point links and support dynamic routing protocols. The differences between IGP and EGP routing protocols. All rights reserved. multicast. Common types of VPNs: MPLS-based VPNs. The importance of convergence time and how route summarization reduced convergence time and improves scalability. How DMVPN relies on NHRP. Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. broadcast. How to configure RIPng. link-state and path vector. The three types of routing protocols: distance vector. Inc. The four traffic types: unicast. How VPNs are used to provide security of a public Internet. The differences between point-to-point. anycast. and DMVPN. How to propagate a default route in RIPng.

Cisco Public 74 . Inc.Chapter 1 Labs  CCNPv7_ROUTE_Lab1-1_RIPng Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Inc. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 75 .Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. All rights reserved.

• Special Thanks to Bruno Silva Chapter 1 © 2007 – 2016. Inc. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 76 . All rights reserved.Acknowledgment • Some of images and texts are from Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) Foundation Learning Guide by Diane Teare. Inc. Bob Vachon and Rick Graziani (1587204568) • Copyright © 2015 – 2016 Cisco Systems.

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